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Translation: Data Security Law of the People's Republic of China

Effective September 1, 2021
Great Hall of the People image by Thomas.fanghaenel
Image by Thomas.fanghaenel

This DigiChina translation was a major team effort. It started from DigiChina's translation of the first public draft of the law by Emma Rafaelof, Rogier Creemers, Samm Sacks, Katharin Tai, Graham Webster, and Kevin Neville in 2020. It incorporated detailed comments by Jamie Horsley on that translation and a draft translation of the changes leading up to the final version by Rogier Creemers. Finally, it was compiled by editor Graham Webster with frequent reference to a full translation of the final law produced by China Law Translate and its editor Jeremy Daum. Questions or criticisms may be addressed to digichina@stanford.edu.

Data Security Law of the People’s Republic of China

Table of Contents

Chapter I: General Provisions

Chapter II: Data Security and Development

Chapter III: Data Security Systems

Chapter IV: Data Security Protection Obligations

Chapter V: Security and Openness of Government Data

Chapter VI: Legal Liability

Chapter VII: Supplementary Provisions

Chapter I: General Provisions

Article 1: This Law is formulated in order to standardize data handling activities, ensure data security, promote data development and use,[1] protect the lawful rights and interests of individuals and organizations, and safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests.

Article 2: This Law applies to data handling activities and their security regulation within the mainland territory of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).[2]

When data handling activities outside the mainland territory of the PRC harm the national security, the public interest, or the lawful rights and interests of citizens or organizations of the PRC, legal liability is to be pursued according to the law.

Article 3: As used in this Law, “data” refers to any information record in electronic or other form.

“Data handling” includes the collection, storage, use, processing, transmission, provision, disclosure, etc., of data.[3]

“Data security” refers to ensuring data is in a state of effective protection and lawful use through adopting necessary measures, and to possessing the capacity to ensure a persistent state of security.

Article 4: In safeguarding data security, the overall national security concept shall be upheld, data security governance systems established and completed, and data security protection capacities increased.

Article 5: The central leading institution for national security is responsible for: policy-making, deliberation, and coordination in national data security work; researching, formulating, and guiding the implementation of national data security strategy and related major directives and policies; comprehensively coordinating major matters and important work in national data security; and establishing a national data security work coordination mechanism.[4]

Article 6: Each locality and department is responsible for data collected and created, as well as data security, in the respective locality or department’s work.

Departments in charge of such sectors as industry, telecommunications, transportation, finance, natural resources, hygiene and health, education, and technology are to undertake data security regulatory duties in their respective field.

Public security authorities and national security authorities, etc., are to undertake data security regulatory duties within the scope of their respective duties, in accordance with the provisions of this Law and relevant laws and administrative regulations.

The national cybersecurity and informatization department[5] is responsible for the comprehensive coordination of network data security and related regulatory work, in accordance with the provisions of this Law and relevant laws and administrative regulations.

Article 7: The State is to protect the data-related rights and interests of individuals and organizations; encourage lawful, reasonable, and effective data use; ensure the lawful and orderly free flow of data; and promote the development of the digital economy with data as a key factor.[6]

Article 8: In the conduct of data handling activities, laws and regulations shall be followed, social public morals and ethics respected, business ethics and professional ethics observed, honesty and trustworthiness [practiced], data security protection obligations fulfilled, and social responsibility assumed; national security and the public interest must not be endangered; and the lawful rights and interests of individuals and organizations must not be harmed.

Article 9: The State is to support the launch of data security knowledge propagation and popularization; raising the entire society’s consciousness and level of data security protection; pushing relevant departments, industry organizations, scientific research institutions, enterprises, individuals, etc., to jointly participate in data security protection work; and forming a positive environment for the entire society to jointly safeguard data security and promote development.

Article 10: Relevant industry organizations, in accordance with their charters, are to formulate data security standards of conduct and group standards, strengthen industry self-discipline, guide members to strengthen data security protection, raise data security protection levels, and promote the healthy development of the industry.

Article 11: The State is to actively engage in international exchanges and cooperation in fields such as data security governance and data development and use, participating in the formulation of international rules and standards related to data security, and promoting the secure and free flow of data across borders.

Article 12: Any organization or individual has the right to file a complaint about or report acts violating the provisions of this Law to the relevant department in charge. Departments receiving complaints or reports shall handle them promptly and in accordance with law.

Relevant departments shall preserve the confidentiality of information related to persons filing complaints or reports and protect the lawful rights and interests of persons filing complaints or reports.

Chapter II: Data Security and Development

Article 13: The State is to coordinate overall development and security, persist in the promotion of data security through data development and use and industrial development, and ensure the development and use of data and industrial development through data security.

Article 14: The State is to implement a big data strategy, advancing data infrastructure construction, and encouraging and supporting the innovative application of data in all industries and all fields.

Provincial-level and higher people’s governments shall include digital economy development in their respective level’s people’s economic and social development plans, and formulate digital economy development plans as needed.

Article 15: The State is to support the development and use of data to increase the intelligentization[7] level of public services. When providing intelligentized public services, the needs of elderly people and people with disabilities shall be fully considered, to avoid creating obstacles in the daily lives of elderly people and people with disabilities.

Article 16: The State is to support research into data development and use and data security technology, encourage dissemination and commercial innovation of technology in fields such as data development and use and data security, and foster and develop products and industrial systems for data development and use and data security.

Article 17: The State shall promote the construction of technical and data security standards systems for data development and use. The administrative department for standardization under the State Council and the relevant departments of the State Council shall, in accordance with their respective duties, organize the formulation and timely revision of standards relating to data development and use technologies, products, and data security. The State is to support the participation of enterprises, social organizations, and educational or scientific research institutions in the formulation of standards.

Article 18: The State is to promote the development of services such as data security testing and assessment, certification, etc., and to support specialized institutions for data security testing and assessment, certification, etc., to carry out service activities in accordance with law.

The State is to support relevant departments, industry organizations, enterprises, educational or scientific research institutions, relevant professional bodies, etc., in carrying out collaboration in areas such as assessment, prevention, and handling of data security risks.

Article 19: The State is to establish and complete data transaction management systems, standardize data transaction behavior, and cultivate a data transaction market.[8]

Article 20: The State is to support education and scientific research institutions, enterprises, etc., to carry out education and training in data development and use technologies and data security, adopting diverse methods to cultivate professional talent in data development and use technology and data security, and promoting talent exchanges.

Chapter III: Data Security Systems

Article 21: The State is to establish a categorized and graded protection system for data,[9] implementing categorized and graded protection according to the data’s degree of importance in economic and social development, as well as the degree of danger to national security, public interests, or the lawful rights and interests of individuals or organizations brought about if it is altered, destroyed, leaked, or illegally obtained or used. The national data security work coordination mechanism is to comprehensively coordinate relevant departments in formulating catalogs of important data and strengthen the protection of important data.

Data related to national security, the lifelines of the national economy, important aspects of people’s livelihoods, major public interests, etc., constitute core national data,[10] for which a stricter management system is to be implemented.

Each region and department, in accordance with the categorical and graded protection system for data, shall determine a specific catalog of important data for the respective region, department, or relevant industry, and engage in special protection of data listed in the catalog.

Article 22: The State is to establish a centralized and integrated, highly effective, and authoritative mechanism for data security risk assessment, reporting, information sharing, monitoring, and early warning. The national data security work coordinating mechanism is to comprehensively coordinate relevant departments to strengthen data security risk information acquisition, analysis, determination, and early warning work.

Article 23: The State is to establish data security emergency response mechanism. When data security incidents occur, relevant departments in charge shall activate emergency response plans in accordance with law, taking corresponding emergency response and handling measures to prevent further harm and eliminate security gaps, and promptly release warning information relevant to the public.

Article 24: The State is to establish a data security review system and conduct national security reviews for data handling activities that affect or may affect national security.

Security review decisions made according to law are final decisions.

Article 25: The State is to implement export controls in accordance with law for data belonging to controlled categories in order to safeguard national security and interests and fulfill international obligations.

Article 26: When any country or region adopts discriminatory prohibitions, restrictions, or other similar measures against the PRC relevant to investment, trade, etc., in data, data development and use technology, etc., the PRC may take reciprocal measures against that country or region based on the actual circumstances.

Chapter IV: Data Security Protection Obligations

Article 27: The conduct of data handling activities shall be in compliance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, establishing and completing a data security management system for the entire workflow, organizing and conducting data security education and training, and adopting corresponding technical measures and other necessary measures to ensure data security. The conduct of data handling activities using the Internet or other such information networks shall perform the data security protection obligations described above on the basis of the cybersecurity Multi-Level Protection System.

Important data handlers shall clearly designate persons responsible for data security, and management bodies to implement data security protection responsibilities.

Article 28: The conduct of data handling activities and research and development of new data technologies shall be beneficial to promoting economic and social development, enhance the people’s well-being, and conform to social morals and ethics.

Article 29: The conduct of data handling activities shall strengthen risk monitoring, and when data security shortcomings, leaks, or other such risks are discovered, remedial measures shall be taken immediately; when data security incidents occur, methods to address them shall be taken immediately, promptly notifying users and reporting to relevant departments in charge as provided.

Article 30: Those handling important data shall periodically conduct risk assessments of such data handling activities as provided and submit risk assessment reports to the relevant departments in charge.

Risk assessment reports shall include the type and amount of important data being handled, the circumstances of the data handling activities, the data security risks faced and measures to address them, etc.

Article 31: The provisions of the Cybersecurity Law of the PRC apply to the outbound security management[11] of important data collected or produced by critical information infrastructure operators operating within the mainland territory of the PRC; outbound security management measures for other data handlers collecting or producing important data within the mainland territory of the PRC are to be jointly formulated by the national cybersecurity and informatization department and relevant departments of the State Council.

Article 32: Any organization or individual collecting data shall adopt lawful and proper methods and must not steal or otherwise obtain data through illegal methods.

Where laws or administrative regulations have provisions on the purpose or scope of data collection and use, data shall be collected and used for the purpose and within the scope provided for by those laws and administrative regulations.

Article 33: When institutions engaged in data transaction intermediary services provide services, they shall require the party providing the data to explain the source of the data, examine and verify the identities of both parties to the transactions, and retain verification and transaction records.

Article 34: Where laws and administrative regulations provide that administrative permits shall be acquired for the provision of services related to data handling, service providers shall obtain permits in accordance with law.

Article 35: Where public security authorities and national security authorities obtain data as necessary to safeguard national security or investigate crimes in accordance with law, they shall undergo strict approval procedures according to relevant State provisions and proceed in accordance with law, and relevant organizations and individuals shall cooperate.

Article 36: The competent authorities of the PRC are to handle foreign justice or law enforcement institution requests for the provision of data, according to relevant laws and treaties or agreements concluded or participated in by the PRC, or in accordance with the principle of equality and reciprocity. Domestic organizations and individuals must not provide data stored within the mainland territory of the PRC to the justice or law enforcement institutions of foreign countries without the approval of the competent authorities of the PRC.

Chapter V: Security and Openness of Government Data

Article 37: The State is to forcefully advance the construction of e-government; increase the scientific nature, accuracy, and efficacy of government data; and enhance capabilities to use data in service of economic and social development.

Article 38: State authorities that need to collect or use data to perform their legally-prescribed duties shall do so within the scope of their legally-prescribed duties and in accordance with the conditions and procedures provided by law and administrative regulations; they shall preserve the confidentiality, in accordance with law, of data such as personal private [data], personal information, commercial secrets, and confidential commercial information; and they must not divulge or illegally provide it to others.

Article 39: State authorities shall, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, establish and complete data security management systems, implement data security protection responsibilities, and ensure government data security.

Article 40: State authorities entrusting others to construct or maintain e-government systems, or to store or process government data, shall undergo strict approval procedures, and shall supervise entrusted parties’ performance of data security protection obligations. Entrusted parties shall perform data security protection obligations according to the provisions of laws, administrative regulations, and contractual agreements, and must not retain, use, divulge, or provide others with government data without authorization.

Article 41: State authorities shall abide by the principles of fairness, impartiality, and convenience for the people and promptly and accurately disclose government data according to provisions, except that which according to law is not to be disclosed.

Article 42: The State is to: formulate government data openness catalogs; build a uniform and standard, interconnected and interactive, secure and controllable government data openness platform; and promote the use of open government data.

Article 43: The provisions of this Chapter apply to the conduct of data handling activities in the performance of legally prescribed duties by organizations authorized by laws and administrative regulations to have public affairs management duties.

Chapter VI: Legal Liability

Article 44: Where relevant departments in charge, in the course of performing data security supervision and management duties, discover the existence of relatively major risks in data handling activities, they may arrange talks with relevant organizations and individuals in accordance with the limits of authority and procedures provided, and require relevant organizations and individuals to adopt measures to carry out reforms or eliminate risks.

Article 45: Where organizations or individuals conducting data handling activities do not perform the data security protection obligations provided for in Articles 27, 29, and 30 of this Law, the relevant departments in charge are to order corrections and give warnings, and may also impose a fine of between 50,000 and 500,000 yuan, and a fine of between 10,000 and 100,000 yuan on directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel. Those who refuse to make corrections or caused serious consequences such as a large-scale data leak are to be fined between 500,000 and 2,000,000 yuan and may be ordered to suspend relevant operations, suspend operations for rectification, or have relevant business permits or licenses revoked; directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel are to be fined between 50,000 and 200,000 yuan.

Where core national data management systems are violated, endangering national sovereignty, security, or development interests, relevant departments in charge are to impose a fine of between 2,000,000 and 10,000,000 yuan and, according to the circumstances, order a suspension of relevant operations, suspension of operations for rectification, or the revocation of relevant business permits or licenses; where a crime is constituted, criminal liability is to be pursued in accordance with law.

Article 46: Where important data is provided abroad in violation of the provisions of Article 31 of this Law: relevant departments in charge are to order corrections and give warning; a a fine of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 yuan may be imposed; a suspension of relevant operations, suspension of operations for rectification, or revocation of relevant business permits or licenses may be ordered; and directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel are to be fined between 100,000 and 1,000,000 yuan.

Article 47: Where institutions engaged in data transaction intermediary services fail to perform obligations provided by Article 33 of this Law: relevant departments in charge are to order corrections, confiscate unlawful gains, and impose a fine of between the amount of the unlawful gains and 10 times the amount of the unlawful gains; where there are no unlawful gains or the unlawful gains are less than 100,000 yuan, a fine of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 yuan is to be imposed; a suspension of relevant operations, a suspension of business for rectification, or the revocation of relevant business permits or licenses may be ordered; and directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel are to be fined between 10,000 and 100,000 yuan.

Article 48: Where the provisions of Article 35 of this Law are violated through refusal to cooperate with the obtaining of data, the relevant departments in charge are to order correction, give warnings, impose a fine of between 50,000 and 500,000 yuan, and fine directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel between 10,000 and 100,000 yuan.

Where the provisions of Article 36 of this Law are violated through the provision of data to foreign justice or law enforcement institutions without the approval of managing authorities, relevant departments in charge are to order corrections, may impose a fine of between 100,000 and 1,000,000 yuan, and may impose a fine of between 10,000 and 100,000 yuan on directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel; where serious consequences result, a fine of between 1,000,000 and 5,000,000 yuan is to be imposed, and a suspension of relevant operations, a suspension of business for rectification, or the revocation of relevant business permits or licenses may be ordered, and directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel are to be fined between 50,000 and 500,000 yuan.

Article 49: Where State authorities do not perform data security protection obligations provided by this Law, the directly responsible management personnel and other directly responsible personnel are to be sanctioned according to law.

Article 50: Where State personnel with data security regulatory duties are derelict, abuse their authority, or abuse their position for private gain, they are to be sanctioned according to law.

Article 51: Where data is obtained through theft or other illegal means, or the conduct of data handling activities eliminates or restricts competition or harms the lawful rights and interests of individuals or organizations, punishment is to be given in accordance with the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations.

Article 52: Where violations of the provisions of this Law harm others, civil liability is to be borne in accordance with law.

Where violations of the provisions of this Law constitute a violation of public security management, public security administrative sanctions are to be given in accordance with law; where a crime is constituted, criminal liability is to be pursued in accordance with law.

Chapter VII: Supplementary Provisions

Article 53: The provisions of the Law of the PRC on the Protection of State Secrets and other laws and administrative regulations apply when conducting data handling activities involving state secrets.

The conduct of data handling activities in statistical or archival work, and the conduct of data handling activities that involve personal information, shall also comply with the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations.

Article 54: Measures for military data security protection are to be formulated by the Central Military Commission according to provisions separate from this Law.

Article 55: This Law is to be implemented beginning Sept. 1, 2021.

Editor's notes

 

[1] “数据开发利用” is translated as "data development and use." The term "development" carries the sense of developing or exploiting a natural resource, and some people translate it as "data exploitation and use."

[2] “中华人民共和国境内” is translated as “within the mainland territory of the People’s Republic of China.” “Mainland” in not specified in the original, but it is generally thought to be implied that the territory referenced does not include Hong Kong or Macao.

[3] DigiChina translates “数据处理” as “data handling.” The term for “handling” is sometimes translated as “processing,” a term DigiChina reserves for 加工. Moreover, recent Chinese legal usage of the term differs significantly from the definitions of “data processing” in other jurisdictions.

[4] “国家数据安全工作协调机制” is translated as “national data security work coordination mechanism.”

[5] This is a common reference to the Cyberspace Administration of China without using its formal name.

[6] Data has recently been repeatedly referred to by authoritative Chinese government texts as a “key factor” (关键要素) of production.

[7] The term “智能化” is translated here as “intelligentization” or “intelligentized.” It can also be translated as “smartification” or “smartness” and refers to integration with artificial intelligence and/or other data-driven or connected “smart” technologies.

[8] “数据交易市场” is translated as “data transaction market.”

[9] “数据分类分级保护制度” is translated as “categorized and graded protection system for data.” Categorized refers to classification of data by type; graded refers to classification by level of sensitivity.

[10] “国家核心数据” is translated as “core national data.” It could reasonably be rendered as “core State data.” Both meanings are carried unless context provides otherwise.

[11]“Outbound security management” (出境安全管理) refers to the security procedures and rules involved in transfer of data out of the mainland territory of the PRC.

 

Chinese-language original

 

 

中华人民共和国数据安全法

 

目录

第一章 总则

第二章 数据安全与发展

第三章 数据安全制度

第四章 数据安全保护义务

第五章 政务数据安全与开放

第六章 法律责任

第七章 附则

第一章 总则

第一条 为了规范数据处理活动,保障数据安全,促进数据开发利用,保护个人、组织的合法权益,维护国家主权、安全和发展利益,制定本法。

第二条 在中华人民共和国境内开展数据处理活动及其安全监管,适用本法。

在中华人民共和国境外开展数据处理活动,损害中华人民共和国国家安全、公共利益或者公民、组织合法权益的,依法追究法律责任。

第三条 本法所称数据,是指任何以电子或者其他方式对信息的记录。

数据处理,包括数据的收集、存储、使用、加工、传输、提供、公开等。

数据安全,是指通过采取必要措施,确保数据处于有效保护和合法利用的状态,以及具备保障持续安全状态的能力。

第四条 维护数据安全,应当坚持总体国家安全观,建立健全数据安全治理体系,提高数据安全保障能力。

第五条 中央国家安全领导机构负责国家数据安全工作的决策和议事协调,研究制定、指导实施国家数据安全战略和有关重大方针政策,统筹协调国家数据安全的重大事项和重要工作,建立国家数据安全工作协调机制。

第六条 各地区、各部门对本地区、本部门工作中收集和产生的数据及数据安全负责。

工业、电信、交通、金融、自然资源、卫生健康、教育、科技等主管部门承担本行业、本领域数据安全监管职责。

公安机关、国家安全机关等依照本法和有关法律、行政法规的规定,在各自职责范围内承担数据安全监管职责。

国家网信部门依照本法和有关法律、行政法规的规定,负责统筹协调网络数据安全和相关监管工作。

第七条 国家保护个人、组织与数据有关的权益,鼓励数据依法合理有效利用,保障数据依法有序自由流动,促进以数据为关键要素的数字经济发展。

第八条 开展数据处理活动,应当遵守法律、法规,尊重社会公德和伦理,遵守商业道德和职业道德,诚实守信,履行数据安全保护义务,承担社会责任,不得危害国家安全、公共利益,不得损害个人、组织的合法权益。

第九条 国家支持开展数据安全知识宣传普及,提高全社会的数据安全保护意识和水平,推动有关部门、行业组织、科研机构、企业、个人等共同参与数据安全保护工作,形成全社会共同维护数据安全和促进发展的良好环境。

第十条 相关行业组织按照章程,依法制定数据安全行为规范和团体标准,加强行业自律,指导会员加强数据安全保护,提高数据安全保护水平,促进行业健康发展。

第十一条 国家积极开展数据安全治理、数据开发利用等领域的国际交流与合作,参与数据安全相关国际规则和标准的制定,促进数据跨境安全、自由流动。

第十二条 任何个人、组织都有权对违反本法规定的行为向有关主管部门投诉、举报。收到投诉、举报的部门应当及时依法处理。

有关主管部门应当对投诉、举报人的相关信息予以保密,保护投诉、举报人的合法权益。

第二章 数据安全与发展

第十三条 国家统筹发展和安全,坚持以数据开发利用和产业发展促进数据安全,以数据安全保障数据开发利用和产业发展。

第十四条 国家实施大数据战略,推进数据基础设施建设,鼓励和支持数据在各行业、各领域的创新应用。

省级以上人民政府应当将数字经济发展纳入本级国民经济和社会发展规划,并根据需要制定数字经济发展规划。

第十五条 国家支持开发利用数据提升公共服务的智能化水平。提供智能化公共服务,应当充分考虑老年人、残疾人的需求,避免对老年人、残疾人的日常生活造成障碍。

第十六条 国家支持数据开发利用和数据安全技术研究,鼓励数据开发利用和数据安全等领域的技术推广和商业创新,培育、发展数据开发利用和数据安全产品、产业体系。

第十七条 国家推进数据开发利用技术和数据安全标准体系建设。国务院标准化行政主管部门和国务院有关部门根据各自的职责,组织制定并适时修订有关数据开发利用技术、产品和数据安全相关标准。国家支持企业、社会团体和教育、科研机构等参与标准制定。

第十八条 国家促进数据安全检测评估、认证等服务的发展,支持数据安全检测评估、认证等专业机构依法开展服务活动。

国家支持有关部门、行业组织、企业、教育和科研机构、有关专业机构等在数据安全风险评估、防范、处置等方面开展协作。

第十九条 国家建立健全数据交易管理制度,规范数据交易行为,培育数据交易市场。

第二十条 国家支持教育、科研机构和企业等开展数据开发利用技术和数据安全相关教育和培训,采取多种方式培养数据开发利用技术和数据安全专业人才,促进人才交流。

第三章 数据安全制度

第二十一条 国家建立数据分类分级保护制度,根据数据在经济社会发展中的重要程度,以及一旦遭到篡改、破坏、泄露或者非法获取、非法利用,对国家安全、公共利益或者个人、组织合法权益造成的危害程度,对数据实行分类分级保护。国家数据安全工作协调机制统筹协调有关部门制定重要数据目录,加强对重要数据的保护。

关系国家安全、国民经济命脉、重要民生、重大公共利益等数据属于国家核心数据,实行更加严格的管理制度。

各地区、各部门应当按照数据分类分级保护制度,确定本地区、本部门以及相关行业、领域的重要数据具体目录,对列入目录的数据进行重点保护。

第二十二条 国家建立集中统一、高效权威的数据安全风险评估、报告、信息共享、监测预警机制。国家数据安全工作协调机制统筹协调有关部门加强数据安全风险信息的获取、分析、研判、预警工作。

第二十三条 国家建立数据安全应急处置机制。发生数据安全事件,有关主管部门应当依法启动应急预案,采取相应的应急处置措施,防止危害扩大,消除安全隐患,并及时向社会发布与公众有关的警示信息。

第二十四条 国家建立数据安全审查制度,对影响或者可能影响国家安全的数据处理活动进行国家安全审查。

依法作出的安全审查决定为最终决定。

第二十五条 国家对与维护国家安全和利益、履行国际义务相关的属于管制物项的数据依法实施出口管制。

第二十六条 任何国家或者地区在与数据和数据开发利用技术等有关的投资、贸易等方面对中华人民共和国采取歧视性的禁止、限制或者其他类似措施的,中华人民共和国可以根据实际情况对该国家或者地区对等采取措施。

第四章 数据安全保护义务

第二十七条 开展数据处理活动应当依照法律、法规的规定,建立健全全流程数据安全管理制度,组织开展数据安全教育培训,采取相应的技术措施和其他必要措施,保障数据安全。利用互联网等信息网络开展数据处理活动,应当在网络安全等级保护制度的基础上,履行上述数据安全保护义务。

重要数据的处理者应当明确数据安全负责人和管理机构,落实数据安全保护责任。

第二十八条 开展数据处理活动以及研究开发数据新技术,应当有利于促进经济社会发展,增进人民福祉,符合社会公德和伦理。

第二十九条 开展数据处理活动应当加强风险监测,发现数据安全缺陷、漏洞等风险时,应当立即采取补救措施;发生数据安全事件时,应当立即采取处置措施,按照规定及时告知用户并向有关主管部门报告。

第三十条 重要数据的处理者应当按照规定对其数据处理活动定期开展风险评估,并向有关主管部门报送风险评估报告。

风险评估报告应当包括处理的重要数据的种类、数量,开展数据处理活动的情况,面临的数据安全风险及其应对措施等。

第三十一条 关键信息基础设施的运营者在中华人民共和国境内运营中收集和产生的重要数据的出境安全管理,适用《中华人民共和国网络安全法》的规定;其他数据处理者在中华人民共和国境内运营中收集和产生的重要数据的出境安全管理办法,由国家网信部门会同国务院有关部门制定。

第三十二条 任何组织、个人收集数据,应当采取合法、正当的方式,不得窃取或者以其他非法方式获取数据。

法律、行政法规对收集、使用数据的目的、范围有规定的,应当在法律、行政法规规定的目的和范围内收集、使用数据。

第三十三条 从事数据交易中介服务的机构提供服务,应当要求数据提供方说明数据来源,审核交易双方的身份,并留存审核、交易记录。

第三十四条 法律、行政法规规定提供数据处理相关服务应当取得行政许可的,服务提供者应当依法取得许可。

第三十五条 公安机关、国家安全机关因依法维护国家安全或者侦查犯罪的需要调取数据,应当按照国家有关规定,经过严格的批准手续,依法进行,有关组织、个人应当予以配合。

第三十六条 中华人民共和国主管机关根据有关法律和中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约、协定,或者按照平等互惠原则,处理外国司法或者执法机构关于提供数据的请求。非经中华人民共和国主管机关批准,境内的组织、个人不得向外国司法或者执法机构提供存储于中华人民共和国境内的数据。

第五章 政务数据安全与开放

第三十七条 国家大力推进电子政务建设,提高政务数据的科学性、准确性、时效性,提升运用数据服务经济社会发展的能力。

第三十八条 国家机关为履行法定职责的需要收集、使用数据,应当在其履行法定职责的范围内依照法律、行政法规规定的条件和程序进行;对在履行职责中知悉的个人隐私、个人信息、商业秘密、保密商务信息等数据应当依法予以保密,不得泄露或者非法向他人提供。

第三十九条 国家机关应当依照法律、行政法规的规定,建立健全数据安全管理制度,落实数据安全保护责任,保障政务数据安全。

第四十条 国家机关委托他人建设、维护电子政务系统,存储、加工政务数据,应当经过严格的批准程序,并应当监督受托方履行相应的数据安全保护义务。受托方应当依照法律、法规的规定和合同约定履行数据安全保护义务,不得擅自留存、使用、泄露或者向他人提供政务数据。

第四十一条 国家机关应当遵循公正、公平、便民的原则,按照规定及时、准确地公开政务数据。依法不予公开的除外。

第四十二条 国家制定政务数据开放目录,构建统一规范、互联互通、安全可控的政务数据开放平台,推动政务数据开放利用。

第四十三条 法律、法规授权的具有管理公共事务职能的组织为履行法定职责开展数据处理活动,适用本章规定。

第六章 法律责任

第四十四条 有关主管部门在履行数据安全监管职责中,发现数据处理活动存在较大安全风险的,可以按照规定的权限和程序对有关组织、个人进行约谈,并要求有关组织、个人采取措施进行整改,消除隐患。

第四十五条 开展数据处理活动的组织、个人不履行本法第二十七条、第二十九条、第三十条规定的数据安全保护义务的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告,可以并处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员可以处一万元以上十万元以下罚款;拒不改正或者造成大量数据泄露等严重后果的,处五十万元以上二百万元以下罚款,并可以责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处五万元以上二十万元以下罚款。

违反国家核心数据管理制度,危害国家主权、安全和发展利益的,由有关主管部门处二百万元以上一千万元以下罚款,并根据情况责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第四十六条 违反本法第三十一条规定,向境外提供重要数据的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告,可以并处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员可以处一万元以上十万元以下罚款;情节严重的,处一百万元以上一千万元以下罚款,并可以责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款。

第四十七条 从事数据交易中介服务的机构未履行本法第三十三条规定的义务的,由有关主管部门责令改正,没收违法所得,处违法所得一倍以上十倍以下罚款,没有违法所得或者违法所得不足十万元的,处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款,并可以责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照;对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

第四十八条 违反本法第三十五条规定,拒不配合数据调取的,由有关主管部门责令改正,给予警告,并处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处一万元以上十万元以下罚款。

违反本法第三十六条规定,未经主管机关批准向外国司法或者执法机构提供数据的,由有关主管部门给予警告,可以并处十万元以上一百万元以下罚款,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员可以处一万元以上十万元以下罚款;造成严重后果的,处一百万元以上五百万元以下罚款,并可以责令暂停相关业务、停业整顿、吊销相关业务许可证或者吊销营业执照,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员处五万元以上五十万元以下罚款。

第四十九条 国家机关不履行本法规定的数据安全保护义务的,对直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员依法给予处分。

第五十条 履行数据安全监管职责的国家工作人员玩忽职守、滥用职权、徇私舞弊的,依法给予处分。

第五十一条 窃取或者以其他非法方式获取数据,开展数据处理活动排除、限制竞争,或者损害个人、组织合法权益的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定处罚。

第五十二条 违反本法规定,给他人造成损害的,依法承担民事责任。

违反本法规定,构成违反治安管理行为的,依法给予治安管理处罚;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。

第七章 附则

第五十三条 开展涉及国家秘密的数据处理活动,适用《中华人民共和国保守国家秘密法》等法律、行政法规的规定。

在统计、档案工作中开展数据处理活动,开展涉及个人信息的数据处理活动,还应当遵守有关法律、行政法规的规定。

第五十四条 军事数据安全保护的办法,由中央军事委员会依据本法另行制定。

第五十五条 本法自2021年9月1日起施行。